Archive for the ‘Venture Board Governance White Papers’ Category

VC Governance FAQ: (6) Are contract terms in partnership agreements shifting in favor of institutional Limited Partners?

images-10This is the sixth in our series of ten frequently asked questions from investors in venture capital partnerships.

Susan Mangiero, CEO of Investment Governance’s Fiduciary X, asked me the following:

Question: You had some thoughts about contract terms. Do you think the trend is shifting in favor of institutional LPs to receive better terms?

Answer: Certainly as the sources of capital have become more  selective and scarce, the GPs have had to become more aware of LP concerns over terms. While  the GPs in top tier funds will still be able to maintain favorable terms (and  LPs will always want to get into their funds), even these GPs have made some  concessions to maintain a supportive investor base. For example, recent press  reports have indicated that at least two prominent funds had lowered their  “premium” carry structures, and made the payment of a 30% carry rate subject  to the return of a multiple of the investors’ capital. For those other funds  that are not oversubscribed, there will undoubtedly be some pressure on  terms. Though there has been a lot of talk about the terms suggested in the  recent guidelines published by the ILPA, these guidelines have not fully  caught hold (and some proposed terms –like joint and several liability  on clawbacks — may be seen as too extreme). Still, in the current fundraising  environment, there will certainly be some movement to provide an  alignment of interests between LPs and GPs, while trying to maintain the  appropriate incentives for the GPs.

VC Governance FAQ: (5) How are VC funds governed differently from the governance standards applied to their portfolio companies?

images-8This is the fifth in our series of ten frequently asked questions from investors in venture capital partnerships.

Susan Mangiero, CEO of Investment Governance’s Fiduciary X, asked me the following:

Question: Please differentiate between the governance of a VC fund versus the governance of companies in a VC fund’s portfolio? Is one more important than the other?

Answer: This is a very important question, and it starts with recognizing that VC funds, as partnerships, are governed very differently from portfolio companies, which are corporations.  The VC fund may have one managing partner that sets the tone and controls the entire firm, or it may have a collegial distribution of governance among several senior partners.  The best way to understand how a VC fund is governed begins with an analysis of the fund’s investment committee, its deal due diligence process, and the specific allocation of the fund’s investment capital among the individual partners.  An important question to ask is, do the partners evaluate themselves and each other on an annual basis or at all? You might be surprised to learn that many VC funds lack an internal feedback loop, that the partners may not communicate openly among each other, and that the partners themselves may lack a formal measure of accountability among each other, even though the economics are divided formally in the management company agreement.images-9

Turning to portfolio companies, the board of directors is responsible for the governance of the company, and here we have a very interesting dynamic which often leads to board dysfunction—the VC directors have inherent conflicts of interest as representatives of their funds and as fiduciaries who must act in the best interests of all of the shareholders.  In addition there is a major tension and conflict between the management team and the VC directors—the management wants more share ownership, and the common equity is at the bottom of the seniority stack behind the various series of preferred equity rounds.  The VCs want capital efficiency, which means they want management to do more with less.  Compounding the complexity is the fact that most VC-backed companies replace their CEOs twice between the founding and the liquidity event.  So you can imagine that the VC boardroom governance equation is very complex and rife with opportunities for problems.

VC Governance FAQ: (4) How do you manage risk when backing serial entrepreneurs?

images-7This is the fourth in our series of ten frequently asked questions from investors in venture capital partnerships.

Susan Mangiero, CEO of Investment Governance’s Fiduciary X, asked me the following:

Question: Are there ways to mitigate the team risk when in fact VC funds often back a particular team or particular CEO?

Answer: When we back serial entrepreneurs, it is critical to assess where they are today in their lifetime achievement and performance potential curve.  By that, I am reminded of the fundamental risk in looking at track records—“past performance is not indicative of future returns.”  It amazes me how many investors chase performance and don’t pay attention to the current team composition at the VC manager, to the current dynamics of the partnership.  Ideally you want to back a proven winner who is still hungry enough to deserve a seat at the table.  Venture capital is totally a hits- driven business, but there are very few hitters, either VCs or entrepreneurs– who are able to hit multiple home runs.  When you look at VC’s, you want to find VC’s who are magnets for great entrepreneurs, whether they are first timers or veterans, and rely on the VCs’ pattern recognition ability to make that judgment call in picking a winner.  One way to mitigate risk is to assess how deep the team is in the VC organization—remember that you are making a 10 year bet on a team, and few teams stay together through an entire cycle.questionnaire

VC Governance FAQ: (3) How can investors protect themselves against key-person risk from fraud in VC-backed portfolio companies?

images-4This is the third in our series of ten frequently asked questions from investors in venture capital partnerships.

Susan Mangiero, CEO of Investment Governance’s Fiduciary X, asked me the following:

Question: Given recent instances of VC-backed company fraud and questions about the management team, how can institutional investors protect themselves from key person risk?

Answer: You are asking a fundamental question here about trust, which relates to your prior question.  I could restate your question by saying, how do I know that I’ve backed someone as a GP who is trustworthy?  The answer is, you have to do your homework on that person, which means that you have to make a full range of reference calls to people who are not on the person’s reference list.  This takes resources and time.  If you are not equipped with the resources to do the work, then you need to rely on someone else’s process—but again that has to be an independent third party whose due diligence credentials are also trustworthy.

Let me turn the table on you a little bit because I sit in your shoes all the time– as a venture capitalist who bets on entrepreneurs, my greatest challenge is to sit across the table from a very enthusiastic person and judge their credibility—will they actually do what they say they are going to do?  Will they work 24/7 to get the job done?  How will they behave when unforeseen challenges occur—which they always do?  Institutional investors have to do the same thing because they are betting on people, and they need to establish a considerable measure of trust if they are going to sign on to a 10 year commitment to invest in illiquid assets.  This is the toughest part of our jobs—as I look back over my the 14 years I have spent in venture capital as part of my 29 year finance career, the biggest mistakes I have made have always been related to key person risk, as opposed to picking the “wrong” technology.

VC Governance FAQ: (2) Especially now, when transparency is so important, why is limited financial information available from a private company?

images-3This is the second in our series of ten frequently asked questions from investors in venture capital partnerships.

Susan Mangiero, CEO of Investment Governance’s Fiduciary X, asked me the following:

Question: At a time when transparency is so important to institutional investors, how can fiduciaries reconcile that there is limited information available with a private company?

Answer: Actually there is plenty of financial information available from private companies, but that does not mean that it is available to institutional investors as passive investors who are Limited Partners in venture capital or other private equity partnerships.

Putting that point aside, for a moment, what is absent is a quoted liquid market in their equity and debt securities, which means that the determination of the book value of those private companies is necessarily subjective. Institutional, or any other investors, for that matter, who choose to invest in illiquid securities, presumably do so because they expect to obtain superior returns from the illiquid securities at the end of the investment period than they would from liquid securities over the same period—otherwise it’s not worth giving up the liquidity and taking the risk of the longer holding period. To get to the core of your question, providing passive institutional investors with more financial information about illiquid securities isn’t going to make them more liquid.  They key is whether you can rest assured that the general partner who is responsible for managing your investment is honoring the trust that you have placed in that manager.

There has been a multi-year move among auditors, driven by demand for greater transparency in understanding the process behind the book valuation of private, illiquid investments, to bring more of a “mark to market” approach in the way the general partners of private equity partnerships value their portfolios.  Before I discuss this in more detail, I should fully answer your question:  the main reason why general partners, particularly in venture capital, should legitimately limit the amount of information they disclose to their investors about their private investments is (1) competitive considerations, particularly for disruptive emerging technologies where protecting intellectual property and market competition from large companies are defining elements in the company’s potential for success.

Having said that, if a sophisticated institutional investor insists on having the right to inspect the details about specific private investments, see business plans, and otherwise get details about the company, if they are prepared to sign a confidentiality agreement and have a good reason for wanting to see this information, it certainly exists and can be made available.

To address the broader point about accuracy in book valuation, I am concerned that the developing industry standard for venture capital is at risk of going too far while providing no real benefit to investors. I see the auditors forcing excessive quarterly compliance burdens on the general partners, and this trend has been developing since the institution of 409a valuations for common stock.  The reason I feel this burden is unnecessary is because, in my view, the additional information may be very precise without being accurate.

The fact remains that you don’t know the value of a private asset unless you actually intend to sell it.  And in venture capital, the second you become a forced seller of a company, you have given it the equivalent of the kiss of death.  For many emerging companies, the moment that you become a bona fide seller and are perceived to have to sell the asset, the value will be diminished—so you can imagine why the lack of an IPO market is the single greatest source of distress for venture capital in the U.S.  To conclude on this question, I’d like to emphasize that, in my view, for early stage companies with little or no revenue, valuation models driven by public equity or option inspired equity models simply make no sense.

VC Governance FAQ: (1) How much information are limited partners (pensions, endowments, foundations, etc.) entitled to receive from a VC fund?

images-2It’s that time of the year again– time to send out audited financial statements and K-1’s to your limited partners– which means it’s also a great time to address some of the common questions that investors raise about VC partnership governance and disclosure issues.

I recently spent some time answering a series of such questions posed to me by Susan Mangiero, the founder and CEO of Investment Governance, Inc., whose site Fiduciary X, is an emerging “one-stop best practices information portal for investment decision-makers and their service providers.” Fiduciary X, on whose advisory board I serve, combines peer networking, research, productivity tools, proprietary data sets,  and a governance-focused knowledge base with a documents archive to serve fiduciaries and risk managers.

In the interests of sharing this interview with a broad group of interested readers, I am going to be posting one question and my answer each day for ten days, including today.  For access to the full interview, which will be published March 15, please go to the Fiduciary X Ezine registration site.logo

Question:  How much information are limited partners (pensions, endowments, foundations, etc.) entitled to receive from a VC fund?

Answer: Section 17-305 (b) of the Delaware Revised Uniform Limited Partnership Act, which governs LP information rights according to DE law, specifically allows the GP to withhold from LPs “any information the GP reasonably believes to be in the nature of trade secrets or other information the disclosure of which the GP in good faith believes is not in the best interest of the Fund or could damage the Fund or its business or which the Fund is required by law or by agreement with a third party to keep confidential.”  This would include the GP’s fiduciary duties and confidentiality obligations with respect to not disclosing portfolio company information without the consent of such company.  The Act provides for a specific list of information that LPs are entitled to, and funds historically disclose that same information to their LPs—the top law firms in Silicon Valley model their LP agreement forms to be pretty consistent with Delaware law.

images-1Specifically, Section 17-305 of the Act provides for the following:

(a) Each limited partner has the right, subject to such reasonable standards (including standards governing what information and documents are to be furnished, at what time and location and at whose expense) as may be set forth in the partnership agreement or otherwise established by the general partners, to obtain from the general partners from time to time upon reasonable demand for any purpose reasonably related to the limited partner’s interest as a limited partner:

(1) True and full information regarding the status of the business and financial condition of the limited partnership;

(2) Promptly after becoming available, a copy of the limited partnership’s federal, state and local income tax returns for each year;

(3) A current list of the name and last known business, residence or mailing address of each partner;

(4) A copy of any written partnership agreement and certificate of limited partnership and all amendments thereto, together with executed copies of any written powers of attorney pursuant to which the partnership agreement and any certificate and all amendments thereto have been executed;

(5) True and full information regarding the amount of cash and a description and statement of the agreed value of any other property or services contributed by each partner and which each partner has agreed to contribute in the future and the date on which each became a partner; and

(6) Other information regarding the affairs of the limited partnership as is just and reasonable.

The current state of the art for Agreements of Limited Partnership in venture capital allows the GP to override the information rights LPs have pursuant to the Delaware Revised Uniform Limited Partnership Act (the “Act”) as permitted pursuant to the Act and allows the GP to “adjust” identifying information given to the LPs in order to protect the identity of the Fund’s portfolio companies, which often is an issue in the case of Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) LPs.  In addition, the partnership agreement allows the GP to restrict / withhold information from LPs if “the General Partner reasonably determines [such LP] cannot or will not adequately protect against the [improper] disclosure of confidential information, the disclosure of such information to a non-Partner likely would have a material adverse effect upon the Partnership, a Partner, or a Portfolio Company.”  Other elements of the well drafted agreement do provide the LP’s with disclosure rights to their advisors, equity holders, etc. and provide remedies and protections to the GP with respect to GP withholding rights and improper LP information disclosure.


Whither Venture Capital– A Constructive Perspective from the Kauffman Fellows Program

images-2There is plenty of ink flowing with speculation on the future of the venture capital industry.  Phil Wickham, CEO of the Kauffman Fellows Program, has a constructive perspective on this topic, which he expressed in his CEO recap in the Kauffman Fellows Program eBulletin that was published on June 2.

Below, I’ve quoted his key observations from the newsletter, with which I agree:

“… I [have] found two camps regarding venture capital: the majority believes venture is the answer to all our needs (mostly entrepreneurs) and the minority seems to think that the entire industry couldn’t fall of the edge of a cliff fast enough (mostly policy and academia). I have to say that the whole thing alarmed me, since we so strongly believe that the answer is nuanced and solidly in the middle of these two extremes. The CVE’s [Center for Venture Education] DNA is that of an “entrepreneur-first” organization, growing out of the culture and values of Mr. K [Ewing Marion Kauffman] and his Marion Labs team that put together and operated the Kauffman Foundation.

Since our full independence from the [Ewing Marion Kauffman]Foundation in 2001, our focus has been to anticipate as much as possible the evolution of the entrepreneur’s needs and opportunities, since we are management’s primary service provider. As a result, we have included the unique expertise of tech transfer funds, angel groups, corporate venture funds, international government seed funds and even foundation investors in the Kauffman Fellows Program as we strive to build a curriculum with maximum value for our customers.

… We’ve concluded a few simple things. First, that entrepreneurial capital is about enabling scale, and the value we deliver as an industry is much the same at any stage or in any environment. Second, that the CVE’s intellectual capital built up over the past 15 years is broadly applicable across all forms of entrepreneurial capital. Third, within that body of knowledge, our evolving expertise in leadership and managing the human dynamic has far more long-term impact than anything else we do. Finally, we are starting to discover that there is a much broader opportunity to spread this leadership know-how to all of the players in the eco-system: university researchers, entrepreneurs, LPs, government policy experts and service providers. We think that if – across the globe – each positional player can come to understand their own and each other’s roles and put their collaborative talents and energies behind the entrepreneur’s imagination, the world will be a better place for our children to inherit.”

Getting From Here to There– It’s Time to Engage in Common Sense Approaches to Public Policy

I usually try to keep my blog posts short. Today I have failed in this endeavor but urge you to please read through to the end of this important post. The current issue of Foreign Affairs Magazine features an excerpt from Leslie Gelb's new book, Power Rules: How Common Sense Can Rescue American Foreign Policy.  This essay is exceptionally good, and, in my view, Gelb's thesis should be applied to all forms of statecraft and to promote the resolution of both newly emerging and long stagnating public policy debates.

Gelb accurately diagnoses the "weakening fundamentals of the United States.  First among them is that the country's economy, infrastructure, public schools, and political system have been allowed to deteriorate.  The result has been diminished economic strength, a less vital democracy, and a mediocrity of spirit."

Several paragraphs in this powerful essay deserve highlighting:

"The bases of the United States' international power are the country's economic competitiveness and its political cohesion, and there should be little doubt at this point that both are in decline.  Many acknowledge and lament faltering parts here and there, but they avoid a frontal stare at the deteriorating whole.  It is too depressing to do so, too much for most people to bear. … The United States is now the biggest debtor nation in history, and no nation with a massive debt has ever remained a great power.  Its heavy industry has largely disappeared, having moved to foreign competitors, which has cut deeply into its ability to be independent in times of peril.  Its public-school students trail their peers in other industrialized countries in math and science. They cannot compete in the global economy.  Generations of adult Americans, shockingly, read at a grade-school level and know almost no history, not to mention no geography.  They are simply not being educated to become the guardians of a democracy.

These signals of decline have not inspired politicians to put the national good above partisan interests or problem solving above scoring points.  Republicans act like rabid attack dogs in and out of power and treat facts like trash.  Democrats seem to lack the decisiveness, clarity of vision, and toughness necessary to govern.  This tableau of domestic political stalemate begs for new leadership.  The nation that not so long ago outproduced the rest of the world in arms and consumer goods, the nation lionized and envied for its innovation, can-do spirit, and capacity to accomplish economic miracles, has become overwhelmed by the tasks it once performed competently and with relative ease."

This is the most succinct and gut-wrenching summary of our national predicament that I have read.  Gelb puts his finger directly on the jugular vein of America's innovation ecosystem and diagnoses the multiple layers of dysfunction that have launched our country into such a deep crisis.  I share his fear of a new global reality developing along the following lines:

Images-1"The real danger in this universe of primitivism and plenty is not new wars or explosions among major states, or a world war, or even a nuclear war.  It is the specter of nations drowning in a flood of terrorism, tribal and religious hatred, lawlessness, poverty, disease, environmental calamities, and governmental incompetence.  Many nations are going under because they are simply unable to cope, and they will drag others down with them."


Gelb closes this essay with an impassioned plea for action, and most important, he retains a strong sense of hope and pride in our country:

"Every great nation or empire ultimately rots from within.  One can already see the United States, that precious guarantor of liberty and security, beginning to decline in its leadership, institutions, and physical and human infrastructure, heading on the path to becoming just another great power, a nation barely worth fearing or following.  It is time to send up flares signaling that the United States is losing its way and its power, that it is in trouble. But it is even more important to reaffirm the belief that the United States is worth fighting for both across the oceans and at home.  There should be no doubt that the United States, alone among nations, can provide the leadership to solve the problems that will otherwise engulf the world.  And for all the country's faults, there should be no doubt that it remains the last best chance to create equal opportunity, hope, and freedom.  But to restore all that is good and special about the United States, to rescue its power to solve problems, will require something that has not happened in a long time: that pragmatists, realists, and moderates unite and fight for their country."

ImagesI've been sending out flares to other realistic moderate pragmatists on this and other topics that demand a "common sense" approach for years.  Through groups such as the Council on Foreign Relations, the Aspen Institute's Socrates Society, the Working Group on Director Accountability and Board Effectiveness, and, most recently, the Security Innovation Network, I have joined and helped forge communities of interest bound together by empowered individuals who are thoughtful and constructive agents of change.  As Gelb points out, we have a lot of wood to cut, but I remain energized and, most importantly, hopeful that we can make a difference because we have to.  Given where America stands today, fomenting pragmatic and realistic change is not an option, it is a requirement.



More Signs of Trouble in the Innovation Ecosystem

Images Images-1Images-2 

The Q1 2009 venture capital investment statistics
are in, and they are down, BIG.
nobody expected a strong showing given the environment, the magnitude of the across-the-board declines should give everyone pause.

(Note: Source for graphic at right, Judy Estrin, Closing the Innovation Gap)

In the speech that I gave at the DHS CATCH conference in Washington,D.C. on March 4th and on the panel that I
moderated at
Stanford on March 18th at ITSEF III, I pointed out that one developing impact of the global financial crisis that was not yet evident in the financial statistics would be accelerated declines in
new capital formation from venture-backed companies because capital normally dedicated to long-term risk has been severely drained from our equity markets—both public and private.

The following data comes from The MoneyTree(TM) Report by PricewaterhouseCoopers and the
National Venture Capital Association
based on data from Thomson Reuters:

"Quarterly investment activity was down 47 percent
in dollars and 37 percent in deals from the fourth quarter of 2008 when $5.7
billion was invested in 866 deals.
The quarter, which saw double digit declines in every
major industry sector, marks the lowest venture investment level since 1997.

Seed and Early stage investing fell 45 percent in terms of
dollars and 40 percent in terms of deals in the first quarter of 2009

with $852 million invested into 204 deals, compared to the fourth quarter when
venture capitalists invested $1.6 billion into 338 deals. Seed/Early stage
deals accounted for 37 percent of total deal volume in the first quarter, down
from 39 percent in the prior quarter.


The dollar value of first-time deals (companies receiving
venture capital for the first time) declined by 48 percent to $596 million
going into 132 first rounds
, compared to the fourth quarter of 2008
when $1.1 billion went into 246 first-time deals.
First-time financings accounted for 20
percent of all dollars and 24 percent of all deals in the first quarter
compared to 20 percent of all dollars and 28 percent of all deals in the fourth
quarter of 2008.

The Clean Tech sector, which … comprises alternative energy,
pollution and recycling, power supplies and conservation, saw a substantial
drop in investment levels
with $154 million going into 33 deals in
the first quarter.
This represented an 84 percent decline in the dollar
level in the Clean Tech sector
from the fourth quarter of 2008 when
$971 million went into 67 deals. This quarter marks the lowest investment level
for the Clean Tech sector since 2005.

The Life Sciences sector (Biotechnology and Medical Devices combined)
experienced a 40 percent decline in terms of dollars and a 31 percent drop in
with $989 million going
into 133 rounds."

New capital formation, particularly first time
financings, plants the seeds for the next generation of successful companies
that are going to be creating new jobs and a sustainable cycle of economic
  New Technology,
particularly Cleantech and Life Sciences investments, are critical focal points
for the Obama administration.

With California unemployment now over 11%, it is
hard to see a reversal in this trend developing in Q2.

Confusing Risk Capital with Systemic Risk– Venture Capital Catalyzes Unlevered Economic Growth, NOT SYSTEMIC RISK

ImagesJames Freeman's Wall Street Journal Editorial of April 8th eloquently captures the critical differences between the positive risks associated with venture capital investing in new technologies and the negative systemic risks associated with the use of debt to magnify otherwise small and non-productive returns from other investing strategies. 

Policymakers need to understand that taking risk is inescapable and desirable in investing.  As long as you know what type of risk you are taking, the fact that an investment is risky does not, in and of itself, make it unwarranted.  Our country is in today's financial crisis due to the massive misrepresentation of the actual underlying risks in financial derivative products by the underwriters of those products and a massive failure of oversight by our regulatory agencies.   This has nothing to do with venture capital– our entire industry is a rounding error in the financial markets. 

In its zeal to show a renewed commitment to oversight, the Treasury Department is currently on a path which may lead to further disastrous unintended consequences from broad brush stroke regulation.  Haven't we already seen enough collective damage from regulations such as Sarbanes Oxley?  The NASDAQ is a ghost town– as of March 9, the market capitalization of 22% of all NASDAQ listed equities were below their balance sheet cash.

Freeman rightly points out:

"…venture investors have been trying to solve the mystery of how they
could possibly threaten the financial system. Their work involves very
little banking. Venture firms raise equity from wealthy investors to
buy ownership stakes in small companies. The VCs and the companies in
which they invest use little or no debt."

Of far greater concern, Freeman raises fundamental issues associated with America's economic and national security in his article, noting that unnecessary regulation will have the unintended effect of choking risk taking in technology investing:

"Attempts to limit risk pose a systemic threat to American technology.
Venture capitalists, mainly veterans of the tech industry, are deeply
involved in the companies they back, often helping to recruit each of
the key employees at a start-up. This hands-on feature of venture
investing means that innovative companies and their backers tend to
cluster in areas like Silicon Valley. If the VCs move offshore, that's
probably where the next generation of companies will be born."

The Obama administration and many Senators and Congressmen are betting our country's future on a renewed, sustainable economic growth cycle anchored by new business formation led by the next generation of American entrepreneurs.   Venture capital is already proven to be  the most efficient capital formation growth engine in the world, and venture capitalists are key players in the innovation ecosystem.  Let's not regulate our venture industry to death in the name of oversight.